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ARCHAEOLOGICAL WRITINGSOF THE SANHEDRIN Vol. 1

AND TALMUDS OF THE JEWSTAKEN FROM THE ANCIENT NOTE AND PARCHMENTS AND SCROLL AT STANTINOPLE AND THE VATICAN AT ROME,

BEING THE RECORD MADE BY THE ENEMIES OF JESUS OF NAZARETH IN HIS DAY.

THE MOST INTERESTING HISTORY EVER READ BY MAN.

By
REV. W. D. MAHAN, OF BOONVILLE, MO.,

Author of ActaPilati, History of Baptism, who is extensively known to the Ministry in the West.

PUBLISHED FOR THE AUTHOR, By Perrin & Smith, Book and Job Printers, 210 Olive Street, St. Louis. 1884.


ENTERED ACCORDING TO ACT OF CONGRESS,On the 7th day of January, A. D. 1884, by Rev. W. D. Mahan, Of Boonville, MO



TO THE READER.

            Believing that no event, of as much importance as the death of Jesus of Nazareth was to the world, could have transpired without some record being made of it by his enemies in their courts, legislations and histories, I commenced investigating the subject. After many years of study, and after consulting various histories and corresponding with many scholars, I secured the assistance of two learned men — Drs.Mcintosh and Twyman — and went to the Vatican at Rome and then to the Jewish Talmuds at Constantinople, incurring a risk of my life as well as expending a good deal of money.
            As a result, I have compiled the following book, which will be found one of the most strange and interesting works ever read. It may appear fragmentary, but the reader will remember that it is the record of men made nearly two thousand years ago.

W. D. Mahan, Boonville, Mo.
July 1st, 1884.

WRITINGS OF THE TALMUDS.
CHAPTER I.

A SKETCH OF THE TALMUDS
The Hebrew word, lamod signifies to teach," and, to 'teach by example." This word, example, is always understood. To teach — this is what is meant by tradition. It means that the child learns from its father. From this word we get the word talmud. We also have the word, shanoh which means to learn," and gamor which means, having learned, or having ceased to learn." The talmuds are written on parchment or papyrus. The scroll is about 20 inches wide, and rolled around a windlass. From these talmuds there have been many books written by the Jewish Rabbis.

The most important is the Mishna. Its name indicates what it is — the Law. It contains the laws of all nations, or a part of the laws of the various nations of the earth, such as the Jewish Sanhedrin thought were compatible with the laws of God. Its principal teachings are what we would call the moral law of God — that is to say, anything is right if God says it is right, and this is the only reason why it is right. This work has been the great reference book for the Jewish Rabbis in all ages. It was translated and compiled by Hillel, and is a very useful book for good scholars.

The next in point of value is the Tosephta. This word in the Hebrew means "treatment," and contains mainly the ritual of the temple service. It is a very extensive work, and is really a regulator of human life, having the dealings of husband and wife, parent and child, master and pupil; in fact, it enters into all the details of life with such thoughtfulness and in such a beautiful style that it would be exceedingly interesting to the young. It certainly contains the finest system of morals in the world.
    Then comes the Mechilta, which means "government," in the Hebrew language. This book tells of the organization of the Sanhedrin and its powers — both the greater and the lesser; the greater to be composed of seventy and the lesser of twenty- four. These two legislative bodies had control of the whole of the Jewish common wealth. Although they exercised great power, their power was not absolute. There was another court that held the highest authority of the nation. That was the court of elders and priests. This court consisted of twelve men, and its chairman was the high priest. It decided all appeals, and could not be appealed from. This is the court that tried Jesus of Nazareth ; and although it was a court of appeals, capital crimes were tried by no court but this.

I will give the form of a trial of a criminal in this court, as it is given in Mechilta. At the time that Jesus was tried by this court, the Jewish government had lost its executive power. This was one of the conceded points in the capitulation by Augustus Caesar. So at this time the Roman Emperor's consent had to be obtained, though he had to use the Jewish soldiers; for the Romans had only one hundred soldiers at Jerusalem. They were all the time engaged in war, and needed all their soldiers at home. When a criminal was brought before this court of the high priests, they went through a preliminary trial, in order, if possible, to bring him to an acknowledgment. If they could not, he was sentenced, and then sent to the Roman authority, or governor, for his approval. He was then sent back to the high priest, and from there to the Sanhedrin, with the charges written out and the names of the witnesses by which these things had been proven.
            If they approved the decision of the high priest, the prisoner was sent back to the high priest for his final trial. This court of twelve men was required by the Jewish law to fast and pray one whole day before the trial commenced, then they were required to bring the Urim and Thummim out of the holy place where they were kept, and to place them before the high priest. He was closely veiled, so that no one could see him, thus representing God doing his work. Then there was what was called the lactees, consisting of two men, one of whom stood at the door of the court with a red flag in his hand and the other sat on a white horse some distance on the road that led to the place of execution. Each one of these men continually cried the name of the criminal, his crime, who were the witnesses, and called upon any person who knew anything in his favour to come forward and. testify. After the testimony was taken the eleven men cast lots or voted, and their decision was shown to the high priest. As he was too holy to act of himself, but only as the mouth-piece of God, he went up to a basin, as it is called by them, and washed his hands in token of the innocency of the court, thus testifying that the criminal's own action had brought condemnation on himself. As soon as the soldiers saw this, they took the man to the place of execution, and there stoned him till he was dead. Not one of them was allowed to speak, not even to whisper, while the execution was going on. Nothing was heard but the pelting of stones and the shrieks of the criminal. To my mind this would be one of the most awful modes of death, and one that would be more likely to deter others from committing crime.

Now, I ask the reader to see the mode of a Roman execution, and see what a beautiful chain of divine Providence is brought out in the execution of Jesus of Nazareth. There was a law in the criminal code of the Romans enacted by Meeleesen, who was a Greek by birth and a philosopher by nature, that taught that if a man was accused of a crime and was tried and found guilty, he should be publicly chastised. His reasons were that the man had acted improperly — so much so that he had created suspicion. This would seem to give license to an enemy to work mischief. But the same philosopher had a remedy at hand, and that was, that any man who accused another and failed to prove it by two witnesses should suffer the punishment the other would have suffered had he been proven guilty. After the whipping was over, the Roman officer washed his hands, thereby declaring that the actions of the man had produced his own chastisement. Thus, after Pilate had Jesus scourged he washed his hands, forever clearing the Roman government of the blood of Christ. How the reader must remember that the soldiers who brought Jesus from the court of the high priest were Jewish soldiers. They were acquainted with the Jewish custom of washing the hands to condemn. Hence, when they saw Pilate wash his hand, they took it for granted Jesus was to die. Now, how can anyone fail to see the beautiful chain of divine Providence running through this whole affair? One might say that this would remove the responsibility of the actors in this matter. But if a man undertakes to injure me, and I by my sagacity avert the injury he intended and convert it into a blessing, would that change the guilt of intention by the first party?

We also learn from the Mechilta that the Jewish Common wealth was divided into districts, such as Palestine, Galilee, Judea, and so on. Each of these states had its courts and legislatures, pre- sided over by a high priest. This is the reason we have so many high priests spoken of in the Jew Testament history. These states were subdivided into smaller divisions, each of which was presided over by a magistrate who was an officiating priest. If anyone will read the Mechilta he will see clearly the government of the United States of America; and as the laws of the Jewish nation were all dictated by the God of heaven, we should appreciate them the more.

The Saphra means, in the Hebrew language, corner stone or foundation rock,'' which goes to show that all these laws were founded upon God's word or authority. This is quite an extended work, and is full of quotations from the various works of the ancient world. I would love to read this carefully for a year and give the extracts to the people. I am sure that this little volume will stir American scholars so that these things will be brought before the reading world. But I would advise' whoever does it, not to trust to the printed copies of the Jewish Rabbis, but go as I did to the original manuscript at Byzantium and get it as it was written by its author.

One more book I must ask attention to, that is the Siphri. This is more of a chronological and biographical work than anything else, and is by far the most valuable work of them all. It gives the history of the great events of all of them, and mentions the name of all the actors of those events, giving a detailed account of the births, lineage, deaths, as well as all the wise sayings of such men as Abraham, Joshua, Moses, David, Solomon, and many others, I would like to give many extracts from this work. They would be of deep interest to the American people, as well as of great benefit to the young and rising generation. There is one extract I must give. It will be read with great interest by the Independent Order of Odd Fellows in America:

Jacob had twelve sons; and when he saw that there was strife and dissatisfaction among them, he went and got him twelve sticks, and when he had bound them together with strong bands, he gave them to his oldest son, and asked him to break them. He tried and could not. Then he gave them to the next and so on until each one down to the youngest had tried to break them. And when they had all failed, the father took the bundle: of sticks and untied them. He gave one to the oldest, and told him to break it. He did so. And then he gave one to the next, and so on, till all the sticks were broken, and each one had done his part. And Jacob said, Now, my sons, you must learn two lessons from this: the first lesson is, what neither one of you could do, you all combined can do; and the second lesson is, when you are all bound together you cannot be broken 1''

Besides all these there is the Pesikta and Midrasham. These are full of interesting items, sermons and extracts of sermons, and wise sayings of great men of all ages, the decisions of the great Sanhedrin on points of law, doctrine, and many other questions of grave importance, and would be of deep interest, to the readers of this day. 'Now the reader must bear in mind that these several books that have been noticed, are all taken from the Talmud of the Sanhedrin, which was made at Jerusalem. These books were compiled by Hillel the Second, soon after the destruction of the holy city, and were made so that if the scrolls should be destroyed they might be preserved in these. After these, other translations were made to answer the necessity of the Jews in their dispersed condition, such as the NagadKikhil Midrash andso on. But remember all these works were compiled by the Jewish priests from the original Talmuds, who, of course, would leave out everything that would have a tendency to favour the Christian religion. In all such works we need not expect to find anything about Jesus of Nazareth. But this by no means proves that such records are not to be found. We must go to the original scrolls, and there we may expect to get the truth, as the following work will go to show. Therefore let the reader read and see for himself. I will now ask the reader to go with me and examine and see why it is that none of our ancient historians have made mention of Jesus of Nazareth, nor of any the circumstances connected with his life. First, I will notice the history of Josephus. He lived at the time and place where Jesus, John Baptist, and all the apostles lived. In his seven historical books, entitled The Jewish Wars,'' he gives an account of the sect called Zealots, who wanted Jesus to go into battle with them as their leader. Jesus spurned them and their offer, telling them that he came to be a peace- maker and not the destroyer of men's lives; that he that saved his life by the sword should lose this life and the life that was to come. He also says that the refusal of Jesus to join the insurrectionists caused a universal detestation of Jesus among the Zealots and Essenes. They thought he had power to kill by the exercise of his will, and his non-resistance was finally the cause of putting him to death, which they did in a most cowardly and brutal manner.
Senect.15, in brut.15, quintil.3 and 12.

In his twenty books on the 'Antiquity and Customs of the Jews," he gives biographical sketches of many of the rulers, priests, and kings of that people. He mentions the name of Jesus, making reference to him in more than fifty places, but does not contradict the general history in referring to him. It would be out of the question in a work like this to give the reader the quotations. It would require more space than can be allowed. I will give the reference, so that anyone can look for himself: Suet, in dom. 13, Martial 9, V. 4. The history of Josephus, as read in this country, is merely an extract translated from the manuscripts originally by Ben Gorion, who was a Jewish Rabbi, and then by Havercamp, of Amsterdam, in 1726 ; and this work is the basis of our present translations. I call the reader's attention to the historian Philo, the greatest of his age. There are over one hundred volumes of his writings still in existence. He was a Jew, and lived in Alexandria. His first work was 'The History of Creation" thirty volumes; the second was on "Sacred History”; and his third the

'Laws and Customs of the Jews."He commenced his writings about A. D. 40. They were first translated by Simon, a Jewish Rabbi. His works are the most extensive of all others. He often refers to Jesus of Nazareth; but we cannot make reference to them for want of space. In 1742 the work by Simon was translated by Mangay of London — two volumes. Tacitus, a Roman historian, wrote his history of Agricola in A. D. 56. It was first translated by Marcus, a Jewish Rabbi ; and so were all the histories written in this age. They were written in the languages of those days, and the Scribes of those days were most all Rabbis. They were the lawyers, doctors, politicians, and statesmen of the day, for they were all students of the Hillel and Shammai schools, which were the most learned bodies of the world. As these were all opposed to Jesus of Nazareth and his followers, of course they kept everything concealed they could that would advance the cause of the Christians. This is the reason why we never have had any knowledge of Jesus of Nazareth from the out- side world or from his enemies. After making mention of these former things, the question comes up. Are these things so? The British museum has lately acquired a grand addition to their library, containing 128 volumes of manuscripts, the writings of great and good men of old. This is enough to start a few enquiries : Who Wrote them? When were they written? How were they preserved so long? Some years ago, when I published a little book, entitled ActaPilati," the same questions were started. The reader is referred to the chapter just read for an answer on this subject. The question also comes up :

Why have not these matters of history been discovered before by our wise men of former ages? In answer to these enquiries I reply, that the wise men, such as Dick, Dwight Watts, Wesley, and Clark, and all such never made any effort to get hold of such documents. I defy any man living to show me a man that has made the effort to obtain such a document. They, perhaps, like many others, took for granted what the Jewish Rabbis said in their histories, that all these records were destroyed, burned up in the great Alexandrian library.

Another reason was perhaps this : It may not have been noticed by many that in the year 748 of the Roman Empire and 337 of the Christian Era. Constantine the Third removed his seat of empire from Rome to Byzantium, and took with him all the records of the Christians to that city, as will be shown in a letter from him in this book, in regard to having the holy Scriptures written in manuscript, and having fifty volumes bound and kept on deposit. When Mohammed took possession of Constantinople, he had too much respect for these sacred scrolls to let them be destroyed, but had them all nicely cased and deposited in the St. Sophia Mosque. History informs us of the dreadful struggle that took place between the Greeks and Romans over the sacred parchments in the day of the Crusades; and it seems to me that divine Providence has had something to do in the preservation of these sacred things. These scrolls look more like rolls of narrow carpet wound around a windlass than anything else. But as I have described them elsewhere I will not attempt a further description here. Another wonder comes up in the mind of the reader, and that is: How was it possible for these  things to be preserved so long? I can answer that there are hundreds of works much older than these in preservation. Homer is 300 years older. Why not these? Another reason why these things have not been brought to the world is, no man that I can hear of has made it his special business to investigate these things as I have done After getting hold of ActaPilati  as I did (accidentally), I made the investigation of these questions my special business for ten years  corresponding with many historians and scholars, sending for all the books that could instruct me on these great questions; and then engaging two experts, who are fine scholars. Dr.Mcintosh of Scotland, and Twyman of England, — and going to the city of Rome and paying our way through the Vatica; and then to Constantinople, and there going through those ancient records; thus sparing no time nor expense to acquire knowledge of these things. Where is another man that has done this? Then it may be asked again: May not I be deceived? May not these men have fooled me?
           
To this I would say: That would be impossible. Then it might be argued: Might not these things have been counterfeited to make money out of? If so, it was a poor business, for this is the first and only book ever produced from them. It certainly was a bad speculation on their part. But one says : Did not Gregory the Ninth burn twenty cart loads of these talmuds? Who says so besides a Jewish Rabbi? If he did, they were the talmuds of Babylon, and not those of Jerusalem. There is no body of Christians stronger adherents to Jesus Christ than the Roman Catholics. Why should they want to burn the talmuds of Jerusalem, which were so full of the doctrines and historical events that are so near and dear to them? No man can go into the Vatican library without a guard over him, who watch him closely so that he cannot move a leaf or change a word or letter of anything that is there. If they would not consent to even the slightest change, it is hardly probable they would burn their works. Men from all over the world arc there. Often when we crossed the Tiber before it was fairly light there were a thousand strangers between us and St. Peter's gate, waiting to be admitted at the opening of the gate that leads into the Vatican. One more evidence to the reader: There are at least five hundred quotations made from the Sanhedrin and talmuds of the Jews, by men who havedenied their existence. How I call your attention to history, and I will give the name, page and all, so you can read for yourself : First, Rabbi Akiba, a reformed Jewish priest, vol. i, page 22, quotes from Celsus, an enemy of the Church. He says there was a dreadful earthquake at the time Jesus was crucified, and that the mist that arose from it covered the earth for three hours. On page 28 he says that Jesus was the son of Mary; that he was the founder of the sect called Christians. On page 48 he says that Jesus was crucified on the eve of the Passover. He gives extracts from the apostles, and never denies in a single instance, but admits their genuineness. He quotes the books and makes extracts from the names they bear. He makes particular notice of his incarnation, of his being born of a virgin, of his being worshipped by the Magi, of his flight into Egypt, of the slaughter of the infants of Bethlehem. On page 52 he speaks of his baptism by John, and the descent of the Holy Spirit in the form of a dove, and of the voice that was heard oat of heaven. He speaks of the miracles done by Jesus, and never doubts the facts in any instance, but attributes them to the art of necromancy he had learned in Egypt. But did the reader ever hear of a thaumaturgist producing the descent of the Holy Spirit, or causing voices to speak from the heavens? Such absurdities are not heard of except when they are against the Christian religion. Aretas, one of the kings of Arabia, who was a philosopher as well as a king, in speaking of the laws of nature, (vol. 7, page 14), says that Jesus of Judea was a philosopher above the laws of nature; that he controlled all the elements of nature with almighty power; that the winds, thunders, and lightings obeyed him; and speaks of these facts as being so common that it would be folly to dispute them. Justin says, in vol. 2, page 42, that the various governors of Rome in their several provinces made reports of the important events that occurred in their jurisdiction, and they were spread on the Senatorial dockets at Rome. We find in this same work, page 128, that he appealed to Antoninus and the Senate for clemency for the Christians, and after referring to their many virtues, and to Christ as their leader, added: And that these things are so, I refer you to the records of the Senate made by Pontius Pilate and others in his day." ''The learned Tertullian, in his Apology for Christianity, about the year 200, after speaking of our Savior's crucifixion and resurrection, and his appearance to the disciples, and ascension into heaven in the sight of the same disciples, who were ordained by him to publish the gospel over the world, thus proceeds: 'Of all these things relating to Christ, Pilate himself, in his conscience already a Christian, sent an account to Tiberius, then Emperor 1' The same writer in the same Apology, thus relates the proceedings of Tiberius on receiving this information : 'There was an ancient decree that no one should be received for a deity unless he was first approved by the Senate. Tiberius, in whose time the Christian name (or religion) had its rise, having received from Palestine, in Syria, an account of such things as manifested the truth of his (Christ's) divinity, proposed to the Senate that he should be enrolled among the Roman gods, and gave his own prerogative vote in favour of the motion. But the Senate, without whose consent no deification could take place, rejected it because the Emperor himself had declined the same honor. Nevertheless the Emperor persisted in his opinion, and threatened punishment to the accusers of the Christians. Search your own commentaries (or public writings), you will there Und that Nero was the first who raged with the imperial sword against this sect, then rising most at Rome. *' — Home's Introduction, vol. 1, page 82. Now I would ask, if there were no such records there, would these men have made such appeals? And if they were there, could such things have been forged and palmed off on the Roman Senate? It seems to me that to ask the question is enough.



CHAPTER II.

DR, RUBIN'S LETTER— DB, McINTOSirS LETTER TO THE PEOPLE OF AMERICA— REV. W. D. MAHAN’S LETTER FROM ROME TO HIS FAMILY;
AN EXTRACT FROM A PRIVATE LETTER FROM DR. RUBIN TO THE “BRUNSWICKER.”
He says: I saw; while in the Vatican at Rome last week, Dr. W. D. Mahan, of Boonville, Mo.Drs. Mcintosh and Twyman, of Scotland, with a number of clerks, both readers and scribes, going through those old manuscripts and scrolls that have been lying there for hundreds, yea, thousands of years ; they seemed to be men of great age and learning, and well qualified for their business. They were going next week to Constantinople to go through the records of the Sanhedrin and the ancient talmuds of the Jews. Their object is to bring out a new book as a supplement to “ActaPilati.'' I am satisfied, from the character of the men and the nature of the book, it will prove to be one of the most interesting books ever presented to the Christian world, from the fact that all the works on archaeology heretofore have been written in such a style that but very few could read and understand them.
Constantinople, Turkey, Oct. 16, 1883. To the People of North America:

Dear Friends : — I take pleasure in addressing you this letter, as I feel assured I am doing a good service for my Father who is in heaven. Then, friends, permit me to say to you that I was introduced to my friend, W. D. Mahan, of Boonville, Mo., by my friends of Leipsig, Germany. I engaged to meet him in Paris, France, and when he showed me his plans and the subjects that he wanted, and showed me his notes of reference, the names of  others, and books that he had been hunting for ten years, I became satisfied that if we could succeed, he would bring out one of the best books ever offered to the Christian world except the Bible. We repaired to the Vatican at Rome, received permission to examine the greatest library in the world, and to my astonishment the first thing we called for was brought to hand in a short time. I mean Pilate's reports, which were more than satisfactory.

The next was the Senate's records respecting the investigation of Herod Antipater's conduct at Bethlehem, and Antipas Herod on various charges (one of which was the execution of John Baptist), the Hillel letters and the Shammai Laws. We then proceeded to Constantinople and went through the records of the Sanhedrin and talmuds of the Jews, that were carried there and preserved by Constantine in the year three hundred and thirty-seven. Here we found Melker's letter (who was priest at Bethlehem at the time that Jesus of Nazareth was born) in respect to the prophecy concerning the birth of Jesus, which is very deep and profound. Next we came upon the report of Gamaliel, who was sent by the Sanhedrin to interview Joseph and Mary concerning the child Jesus, which will prove to be one of the most interesting subjects that was ever read by man. Then the next thing we found was the report of Caiaphas to the Sanhedrin. When read it will awaken the minds of men, and give a very different view of this matter to what we have had. After we had finished the report, Bro. Mahan insisted that we should unwind the scroll further, and in doing so we found his second report, which caused us to weep like children, and we both thanked God that we continued the search. We also found many strange historical items, such as will be of great interest to the world at this time. And as Bro. Mahan is going to publish his book in America, I can most heartily recommend it.

M. McIntosh. Market Platt, City of Rome, Italy.
Dear Wife : — It seems long since I left home, but God is here as well as in America, and it is my chief delight to report you and the children to his throne of mercy daily. I was landed at Marseilles, France, after twelve days out from New York. We had a splendid trip, all but the first two days. We left New York in a gale, and I must confess I was very much alarmed; it seemed to me the water was much higher all around us than it was where the ship was. That made it more frightful, for it looked as if the ship was sunk or sinking, for the two first days. She was sometimes on her end, then on her side, and then would seem to turn almost over; but every tilt she gave I prayed St. Peter's prayer. I think I did more praying the two first days than I had done in two years. But the second day I began to cast up my accounts, not with my Maker, nor my creditors, but with my stomach I was awful sick.

Capt. Stikes said the storm in starting out made it much worse on us than it would have been if the weather had been clear and calm, but the third day the sea began to calm, and so did my stomach. I was able to go out in the evening, but we were still going up hill ; we had no further trouble all the way, but after three or four days it looked like I never would get enough to eat. Our fare was poor, much more so than on the English line, as I was told by men that had travelled both lines. I shall return another route. I met Dr.Mcintosh, at St. Elgin waiting for me. He is one of the nicest old men and one of the finest scholars I have ever met — he is so noble and grand. I feel ashamed in his presence, though he is so grand and noble he can hide my own defects from me better than I can myself. He was very much surprised when I showed him my notes of reference. He did not see how I could get hold of these things so far away.

We found Dr.Twyman and his men at the Vatican, and we are working bravely. The very first thing the guard brought was 'ActaPilati ;' the Doctor was delighted when he read it. We have two guards; one brings the articles as we call for them, the other sits and watches to see the books and parchments are not mutilated. To-day was the day of the Pope's holy auditory. We were taken in by our guard, and I must confess I never had such feelings in all my life. The room, I suppose, is 300 feet square or more; there must have been ten or twelve hundred in the congregation, all men, mostly priests and officers. The Pope is a plain, venerable old man. I saw nothing different in his dress to any other priest nothing gaudy about him. He cried mass in the pure old Latin language; his voice was clear and sweet. After he was through quite a number of the priests came and knelt at his feet. He laid his hand gently on each of their heads and pronounced a blessing, but they did not kiss his great toe. I never saw as solemn a congregation in my life; in fact it would be impossible for a man to be otherwise in that room. Of all the painting my eyes ever beheld, and there are hundred glass eyes with golden lids and lashes all uniting their various colors of light, all seemed so natural. I almost thought I could see them wink. This one to represent the all-seeing eye. These eyes are the light of the room, but the scene of magnificence beggars description. There are too many things to be described, but a man will have a higher appreciation of the Catholic Church, where he sees her enthroned in the hearts of this great church, and I shall ever have a different feeling towards them to what I have had. We have all the text books we need, Buxtorf, Gesenins, Laportees and others. We will get through in the Vatican in a few days. We will leave Dr.Twyman and three clerks here, as we find the Hillellite letters and the Sheraiate and Abtalian Laws here in book form. They will translate such parts of them as we want and send them to me; they will come in a roll. If they come before I get home, take special care of them. Dr. McIntosh and I, with one clerk, will go to Constantinople in a day or two. The Doctor has been there and he thinks he will find all that I am looking for in the St. Sophia Library. He says the twenty cart loads of talmuds that history tells us was burned by Gregory the 6th, were the talmuds of Babylon, but the talmuds of Jerusalem are all safe, and so are the records of the Jerusalem Sanhedrin ; that these documents were carried there by Constantine at the middle of the third century. If so, this is all I want. The Doctor thinks it will be one of the most important books ever brought before the public, except the Bible, as it will give the pros and cons of the outside world at that time. But I have so many things I would like to say, and it is now after 1 o'clock a. m. As to home affairs, I am too far off to say anything more, besides I have all confidence in your judgment. I think now that I will be home by the 10th or 15th of December, and I shall write no more unless something happens. May God bless you; farewell. W. D. Mahan.







CHAPTER III.

EUSEBIUS' HISTORY OF THE EMPERORS OF ROME. CONSTANTINE'S LETTER IN REGARD TO HAVING FIFTY COPIES OF THE SCRIPTURES WRITTEN AND BOUND FOR PRESERVATION


While in Constantinople I saw one thing that I will take the liberty of describing to my readers. It is known to the historian that Constantine was a great lover of the Christian religion, and that he had fifty copies of the Scriptures made by his order and placed in the public library for preservation. Some historian has said that they were so large; it took two men to open one of them. I found one of these volumes nicely cased, marked with the Emperor's name and date upon it. To me it was a very great curiosity. I got permission with a little bachsach, as they call money, to look through it. It was written on hieotike which is the very finest of parchment, in large, bold, Latin characters, quite easy to read. So far as I read it had many abbreviations of our present Scriptures, but the facts, sense and sentences are as full, and, if anything, more complete than our English version. I judge it to be about two and a half by four feet, and two feet thick. It is well bound, with a fine gold plate on the front, twelve by sixteen inches, with a cross and a man hanging on the cross, with the inscription, Jesus, the Son of God, crucified for the sins of the world." If the Revision Committee had examined and published this work, they might have said they were giving the world some- thing new ; but so far as we examined we saw nothing essentially different from our present Bible. Constantine's letter is on the first page, which we transcribed. The historian will remember that in the Life of Constantine, (written by Eusebius Pamphili, Bishop of Caesarea, who only served him a few years) Eusebius writes as follows: Ever mindful for the welfare of the churches of God, the Emperor addressed me personally in a letter on the means of providing copies of the inspired oracles." His letter, which related to the providing of copies of the Scriptures for reading in the churches, was to the following purport :

Victor Constantine Maximus Augustus to Eusebius: It happens through the favoring of God our Savior, that great numbers have united themselves to the most holy church in this city, which is called by my name. It seems, therefore, highly requisite since the city is rapidly advancing in prosperity in all other respects, that the number of churches should also be increased. Do you therefore receive with all readiness my determination on this behalf. I have thought it expedient to instruct your Prudence to order fifty copies of the Sacred Scriptures, the provisions and use of which you know to be most needful for the instruction of the churches, to be written on prepared parchment, in a legible manner, and in a commodious and portable form, by transcribers thoroughly practiced in their art. The procurator of the diocese has also received instructions by letter from our Clemency to be careful to furnish all things necessary for the preparation of such copies, and it will be for you to take special care that they be completed with as little delay as possible. You have authority, also, in virtue of this letter, to use two of the public carriages for their conveyance, by which arrangements the copies, when fairly written, will most easily be forwarded for my personal inspection, and one of the deacons of your church may be entrusted with this service, who, on his arrival here, shall experience my liberality. God preserve you, beloved brother." Now this was done about 360 years after the great questions were started, and only about 270 years after the last apostate was dead. Suppose someone should write a book, saying that such a man as Washington never lived that there never was a revolution of the United States against the King of England ; what would people say of him? The children of this country would rise up and show him to be false. Then suppose there never was such a man as Jesus Christ ; that he never Was born at Bethlehem ; that he never had any disciples; that they never organized a Christian Church ; and suppose someone should say there was no persecution of the Christian Church for 200 years ; what would you think of a king doing such a thing as making the above described books? Remember, too, that nothing was written in those days but the most important affairs of life, because only a few men could write, and the means of writing were very poor. Now the existence of these writings was never denied for twelve or fourteen hundred years afterwards. Their intent and spirituality may have been denied, but the facts never were. How what ought we to think of a man that would deny events that occurred two thousand years ago, that were recorded in the records of kings and historical writers, when he had not one single record to prove it? How could he know that such records are false? He would have no history, no records of those days to prove it; and if they were false, is it not as reasonable that they would have been proven so then?



CHAPTER IV.

JONATHAN'S REPORT OF HIS INTERVIEW WITH THE SHEPHERDS OF BETHLEHEM; ALSO, LETTER OF MELKER, WHO WAS PRIEST OF THE BETHLEHEM SYNAGOGUE WHEN JESUS WAS BORN

Jonathan, son of Heziel, investigates the shepherds and others at Bethlehem in regard to the strange circumstances reported to have occurred there, and reports to this court : Jonathan, to the Masters of Israel, servants of the true God : In obedience to your order, I met with two men, who said they were shepherds, and were watching their flocks near Bethlehem. They told me that while attending to their sheep, the night being cold and chilly, some of them had made fires to warm themselves, and some of them had laid down and were asleep ; that they were awakened by those that were keeping watch with the question, *'What does all this mean? Behold, how light it is!" that when they were aroused it was as light as day. But they knew it was not daylight, for it was only the third watch. All at once the air seemed to be filled with human voices, saying, 'Glory! Glory! Glory! to the most High God!'' and, 'Happy art thou, Bethlehem, for God hath fulfilled his promise to the fathers ; for in thy chambers is born the King that shall rule in righteousness.'

Their shouting would rise up in the heavens, and would then sink down in mellow strains, and roll along at the foot of the mountains, i and die away in the most soft and musical manner they had ever heard ; then it would begin again high up in the heavens, in the very vaults of the sky, and descend in sweet and melodious strains, so that they could not refrain from shouting and weeping at the same time. The light would seem to burst forth high up in the heavens, and then descend in softer rays and light up the hills and valleys, making everything more visible than the light of the sun, though it was not so brilliant, but more clear, like the brightest moon. I asked them how they felt  if they were not afraid ; they said at first they were ; but after awhile it seemed to calm their spirits, and so fill their hearts with love and tranquillity that they felt more like giving thanks than anything else. They said it was around the whole city, and some of the people were almost scared to death. Some said the world was on fire ; some said the gods were coming down to destroy them ; others said a star had fallen; until Melker, the priest, came out shouting and clapping his hands, seeming to be frantic with joy.

The people all came crowding around him, and he told them that it was the sign that God was coming to fulfil his promise made to their father Abraham. He told us that fourteen hundred years before God had appeared to Abraham, and told him to put all Israel under bonds — sacred bonds of obedience; and if they would be faithful, he would give them a Savior to redeem them from sin, and that he would give them eternal life, and that they should hunger no more ; that the time of their suffering should cease forever ; and that the sign of his coming would be that light would shine from on high, and the angels would announce his coming, and their voices should be heard in the city, and the people should rejoice ; and a virgin that was pure should travail in pain and bring forth her first born, and he should rule all flesh by sanctifying it and making it obedient. After Melker had addressed the people in a loud voice, he and all the old Jews went into the synagogue and remained there praising God and giving thanks. I went to see Melker, who related to me much the same as the shepherds had reported.

He told me that he had lived in India, and that his father had been priest at Antioch; that he had studied the sacred scrolls of God all his life, and that he knew that the time had come from signs given, for God to visit and save the Jews from Roman oppression and from their sins ; and as evidence he showed me many quotations on the tripod respecting the matter. He said that next day three strangers from a great distance called on him, and they went in search of this young child ; and they found him and his mother in the mouth of the cave, where there was a shed projecting out for the sheltering of sheep; that his mother was married to a man named Joseph, and she related to them the history of her child, saying, that an angel had visited her, and told her that she should have a son, and she should call him Jesus, for he should redeem his people from their sins ; and he should rule all nations of the earth, and that all nations should call her blessed forever more. Whether this is true or not remains to be proven in the future. There have been so many impostors in the world, so many babies born under pretended miracles, and all have proven to be a failure, that this one may be false, this woman only wishing to hide her shame or court the favour of the Jews. I am informed that she will be tried by our law, and, if she can give no better evidence of her virtue than she has given to Melker, she will be stoned according to our law, although, as Melker says, there never has been a case before with such apparent divine manifestations as has been seen on this occasion.

In the past, in various instances, virgins have pretended to be with child by the Holy Ghost, but at the time of their delivery there was no light from the heavens, and no angels talking among the clouds and declaring that this was the King of the Jews. And, as to the truth of these things, the whole of the people of Bethlehem testify to having seen it, and the Roman guard also came out and asked what it meant and they showed by their actions that they were very much alarmed. These things, Melker says, are all declared in the Scriptures to be the sign of his coming.

Melker is a man of great learning, and well versed in the prophecies, and he sends you this letter, referring you to those prophecies: Melker Priest of the Synagogue of Bethlehem To the Higher Sanhedrin of the Jews at Jerusalem : Holy Masters of Israel : — I, your servant, would call your attention to the words of the prophet in regard to the forerunner, and the rise as well as the conductor of a great and mighty nation, wherein should dwell the true principles of righteousness and the conductor of the outward formation of a national domain of God upon earth. As evidence of the fact, the vision and affliction that has befallen Zechariah of late is enough to satisfy all men of the coming of some great event; and this baby of Elizabeth is the beginning of better times.

 What has occurred here in the last few days, as Jonathan will inform you, forever settles the question that the day of our redemption is drawing nigh. The sections of these divisions are three. First, the general survey ; the original foundation and destiny of man in his single state ; the protoevangel; the full development of mankind ; the promises to the fathers of the covenant people; Judah, the leader tribe; section second, the Mosaic law and the Mosaic outlook; the prophecy of Balaam ; section third, the anointed of the Lord ; the prophetic covenant in the songs of Israel of the anointed one; and the prophets of the past exile : Haggai, Zechariah, and Malachi ; Malachi's prophecy to the forerunner of the Lord. Now, noble masters of Israel, if you will refer to the several sections of the divine word you will not  ̂̂̂̂̂̂̂̂̂̂̂̂̂̂̂̌̌̌̌̌̌̌̌̌̌̌̌̌̌̌̌̌̌̌̌̌̌̌̌̌̌̌̌̌̌̌fail to see that all that has been spoken by the prophets in regard to the works of God upon earth has been fulfilled in the last few days in the two events, the birth of the child of Elizabeth and that of Mary of Bethlehem.

Considering the unlimited freedom which some men take with these holy writings of God, as to the above prophecy, subjects us to the severest criticism. It is, however, most satisfactory to see and hear that the divine grandeur and authority of the sacred oracles are in no way dependent on the solution of carnal critics, but rest on an inward light shining everywhere out of the bosom of a profound organic unity and an inter-connected relation with a consistent and united teleology; overleaping all time, the historical present as well as the past, and all the past brought to light in these two events that have just transpired. Indeed, all past time is blending with the present horizon, and the works of God in ages past are just beginning to develop themselves at this particular time, and the present scenes are bringing us close on to the ways of God upon earth.

While we reverence these men of God, we should not misappropriate their language. Take, for example, the third section of Isaiah, where he prophesies of the captive Israelites, instead of his consolation to the captive. While one of his words refers to the future condition and the reason there for, the other is sweet in consolation of the Israelites while in this state of captivity, and full of the blessed promises in the future.

But let the spirit of prophecy bear us on with the prophet into future time, far beyond the kingdoms of this world into a glorious future, regardless of the Roman Babylonian or even the Maccabeean rule or rulers; but never forgetting that the prophet is one who is divinely inspired, and is called, commissioned, and qualified to declare the will as well as the knowledge of God. Yes, he is a seer. His prophecy is of the nature of a vision, involving and enveloping all the faculties of the soul, and placing the prophet in the attitude to God of being outside the body and independent of it. Yea, far better without the body than with it, for the further the soul gets from the body the more active it becomes.

This fact is demonstrated in our dreams. The vivid powers of the soul are much more active in dreams than at any other time, the perception is clearer, and the sensitive faculties are much more alive when asleep than when awake. We see this verified in the man dying. His eye is usually brighter, his mind is clearer, his soul is more free and becomes less selfish, as he passes on and nears the eternal state. So is the prophet. He becomes so personal with God that he uses the personalities with seeming presumption; while it is the indwelling power of God's Spirit inflating the soul and setting the tongue on fire. So was the moving language of the words to which you have been referred.

It seems to me those men of God saw distinctly the gathering light; they saw the travailing of the virgin, they saw the helpless infant in the sheep trough; they heard the mighty chanting of the heavenly host; they saw the ambition of human nature in the Roman soldiery aiming to destroy the child's life.; and they saw in that infant human nature in its fallen and helpless condition; and it appears as if they saw the advance of that infant into perfect manhood. As he becomes the theme of the world, his advancing nature will triumph over all; as he does escape the Roman authority this day, so he will finally triumph over all the world, and even death itself shall be destroyed.

We, as Jews, place too much confidence in the outward appearance, while the idea we get of the kingdom of heaven is all of a carnal nature, consisting of forms and ceremonies. The prophecies referred to and many other passages that I might mention, all go to show that the kingdom of God is to begin within us, in the inner life, and rule there, and from the inner nature all outward actions are to flow in conformity with the revealed and written teachings and commands of God. So is the spirit of prophecy. While it uses the natural organs of speech, it at the same time controls all the faculties of life, producing sometimes a real ecstasy,not mechanical nor loss of consciousness, though cut off for the time from external relations. He is thus circumscribed to speak, as did Balaam, the words of God with human life. This is to be held by us Jews as of the first and greatest importance, and we are to remember that his prophecy has the same reference to the future that it does to the past, and has respect to the whole empire of man. While it specifies individuals and nations, it often has reference to doctrines and principles; and in this light Israel is the result of prophecy as a nation with her religious teachings. So is this virgin's baby born to be a ruler of all nations of the earth. The Torah itself goes back to prophecy, as well as every prophet stands on the Torah, and on this rests all prophecy pronouncing condemnation on the disobedient and blessings on the faithful. It was on this principle that the covenant of inheritance was made with Abraham, and, in reality, so made with David. Thus all the promises, political, ethical, judicial, and' ritual, rest on the Torah. In short, the whole administration finds its authority in the prophetic vision, as set forth by the commands of God, to regulate human life commencing in the inner life and working outward, until the outward is like the inward; and thus advancing on from individuals to nations.

The Messianic prophecy has no other justification than this. On this rests the Church, and on this rests the theocracy. On this rests the glory of the future kingdom of God upon earth.

The whole chain of prophecy is already fulfilled in this baby; but the development is only commencing. He will abolish the old cults forever, but with man it will develop commensurate with time itself. There are many types in the shadow, in the plant, in the animal. Every time the Romans celebrated a triumph on the Tiber it shadowed forth the coming Caesar; so every suffering of David, or lamentation of Job, or glory of Solomon yea, every wail of human sorrow, every throe of human grief, every dying sigh, every falling bitter tear  was a type, a prophecy of the coming King of the Jews and the Savior of the world. Israel stands as a common factor at every great epoch of history. The shading of the colors of the prophetic painting does not obliterate the prediction of the literal Israel's more glorious future in the kingdom of God. Her historic calling to mediate salvation to the nations is not ended with this new-comer on the stage of carnal life. The prophecy is eschatological, refining the inner life as well as shaping the outer life in conformity to good laws. Looking also to the end of time and its great importance to us, it has something to teach,jand we have something to learn. Along the ages past all the great, good and happy have first learned their duties, and then performed them ; and thus for thousands of years Israel has stood, hope never dying in the Hebrew heart, and has been the only appointed source of knowledge of the true God preserved. And this day she stands as the great factor and center around which all nations of the earth must come for instruction to guide them, that they may become better and happier. These secret scrolls, which we Jews received from God by the hand of Moses, are the only hope of the world. If this was lost to mankind, it would be worse than putting out the sun, moon, and all the stars of night, for this would be a loss of sacred light to the souls of men. When we consider the surroundings, there never has been a time more propitious than the present for the establishing of the true religion, and it seems, by reviewing our history for hundreds of years past, that this is the time for the ushering in of the true kingdom of God. The nations of the earth that have been given to idolatry are growing tired of placing confidence in and depending on gods that do not help them in the hour of danger, and they are now wanting a God that can and will answer to their calls. King Herod sent for me the other day, and after I related to him of the God of the Jews and his works, of the many and mighty deeds he had performed for our fathers and for us as a nation, he seemed to think, if there was such a God as we professed, it was far better than to depend on such gods as the Romans had made, of timber, stone, and iron; and even the gods of gold were powerless. He said if he could know that this baby, that was declared by the angels, was such a God as he    that saved the Israelites in the Red Sea, and saved Daniel, and those three from the fearful heat of fire, he would have pursued quite a different course toward him. He was under the impression that he had come to drive the Romans from their possessions, and to reign as a Monarch instead of Caesar. And I find this to be the general feeling throughout the world, so far as I can hear; that the people want and are ready to receive a God that can demonstrate in his life that he is such a God that the race of men can depend on in time of trouble; and if he can show such power to his friends he will be feared by his enemies, and thus become universally obeyed by all nations of the earth. And this, I fear is going to be a trouble with our nation ; our people are going to look to him as a temporal deliverer, and will aim to circumscribe him to the Jews alone; and when his actions begin to flow out to all the inhabitants of the world in love and charity, as is most certainly shown forth in the ninth section of the holy prophet, then I fear the Jews will reject him; and, in fact, we are warned of that already in the third section of Jeremiah's word. To avoid this Israel must be taught that the prophecy of Isaiah does not stop with the Babylonian captivity and return to the kingdom of heaven, and that Ezekiel's wheels do not whirl politically nor spiritually in heaven, but upon earth, and have reference to earthly revolutions or changes, and show the bringing to pass of the great events of which this of Bethlehem is the grandest of all. Neither is the outlook of Daniel to be confined to the shade of the Maccabeean wall of Jewish conquest.

Nor are these great questions to be decided by our unsuccessful attempts to find out what the prophet meant or what he might have understood himself to mean; but from the unity, totality, and organic connection of the whole body of prophecy, as referring to the kingdom of this world becoming subject to the kingdom of the Savior of all men. We, as Jews, are the only people that God has entrusted with the great questions, and of course the world will look to and expect us to give interpretation to these questions; and, as we are entrusted with these things, God will hold us responsible if we fail to give the true light on this subject. Up to this time I am fearful the Jews as a nation are as much divided, and perhaps as much mistaken, as to the nature of his works, as any other people. I find, by conversing with the Romans, Greeks, and others, that all their knowledge of these things of Jewish expectation in a Redeemer has been obtained from the Jews, either directly or indirectly, and it was through them Herod got the idea of his being a temporal King, and to rule and reign by the might of carnal weapons; whereas, if we consult the spiritual import of the prophets, his office is to blend all nations in one common brotherhood, and establish love in the place of law, and that heart should throb high with love to heart and under this rule a universal peace. Wherever one should meet another, they would meet as friends; for what else can the prophet mean, in section nine, where he shows that this King shall destroy all carnal weapons and convert them to a helpful purpose, and thus become the active worker in doing good to all men, and teaching all men to do good to each other?

By reading all the scrolls of God we find that the unity and totality of all the prophets go to bear us out in this idea, and all have reference to this Baby of Bethlehem. If we consult them as to the time taking the revolutions of Ezekiel’s wheels, they show plainly that the revolutions of the different governments of the world fix this as the time. Next, consult them in regard to the individuals connected with this great event. These are pointed to as the virgin wife, by Zechariah; next, the place has been pointed out and named ; then the light and the appearing of the angels have all been set forth, and also the opposition of the Romans has been declared. Now, I ask the High Court of the living God to look well on these things, and tell us how men that lived in different ages of the world, that lived in different portions of the country — men that never knew each other men that were not prophesying for a party — men that had no personal interest in the subject as men— men that jeopardized, and some of them lost, their lives on account of having uttered these prophecies — how could they all point out the place, the time, and the names of the parties so plain and clear, if it was not revealed to them and ordained by God himself? I understand that the Romans and some of the priests have been saying that Zechariah was a hypocrite, and that Mary was a bad woman. Such might be the case, so far as man is able to judge; but who, I ask, can forge thetruth as these prophecies, and make them come true? Or who can cause light to descend from the heavens and the angels to come down and make the declaration that this was the Son of God, King of the Jews? Noble Masters of the Sanhedrin, I was not alone. I am not the only witness of these things. The principal people of Bethlehem saw them and heard them as I did. I would say to you, if this is not the Jews' King, then we need not look for any other; for every line of prophecy has been most completely fulfilled in him ; and if he does
not appear and save his own people I shall despair of ever being released, and I shall believe that we have misinterpreted the meaning of all the prophets. But I feel so sure that this is he I shall wait in expectation and with much anxiety, and I have no fears of any harm befalling him. All the Romans in the world cannot harm him ; and although Herod may rage, he may destroy all the infants in the world, the same angels that attended his birth will watch over him through life, and the Romans will have to contend with the same God that Pharaoh did, and will meet with similar defeat.




CHAPTER V.


GAMALIEL'S INTERVIEW WITH JOSEPH AND MARY, AND OTHERS CONCERNING JESUS.
The hagiographa or holy writings, found in the St. Sopia mosque at Constantinople, made by Gamaliel, in the talmuds of the Jews, 27 B. It seems Gamaliel was sent by the Sanhedrin to interview Joseph and Mary in regard to this child Jesus. He says: ''I found Joseph and Mary in the city of Mecca, in the land of Ammon or Moab. But I did not find Jesus. When I went to the place where I was told he was, he was somewhere else; and thus I traced him from place to place, until I despaired of finding him at all. Whether he discovered that I was in search of him and he did it to elude me, I cannot tell, though I think it most likely the former was the reason, for his mother says he is bashful and shuns company.

Joseph is a wood workman. He is very tall and ugly. His hair looks as though it might have been dark auburn when young. His eyes are gray and vicious. He is anything but prepossessing in his appearance, and he is as gross and grum as he looks. He is but a poor talker, and it seems that yes and no is the depth of his mind. I am satisfied he is very disagreeable to his family. His children look very much like him, and upon the whole I should call them a third-rate family. I asked him who were his parents. He said his father's name was Jacob, and his grandfather was Matthew. He did not like to talk on the subject. He is very jealous. I told him that we had heard he had had a vision, and I was sent to ascertain the facts in the case. He said he did not call it a vision; he called it a dream. He said after he and Mary had agreed to marry, it seemed that something told him that Mary was with child; that he did not know whether he was asleep or awake, but it made such an impression on his mind that he concluded to have nothing more to do with her ; and while he was working one day under a shed, all at once a man in snowy white stood by his side and told him not to doubt the virtue of Mary, for she was holy before the Lord ; that the child conceived in her was not bv man, but by the Holy Ghost, and that the child should be free from human passions. In order to this he must — that is, his humanity must — be of the extract of an almah(that is the Hebrew word for virgin), that he might endure all things, and not resist, and fill the demands of prophecy. He said the angel told him that this child should be great, and should rule all the kingdoms of this world. He said that this child should set up a new kingdom, where- in should dwell righteousness and peace, and that all the kingdoms of this world which should oppose him God would utterly destroy. I asked him. How could a virgin conceive of herself with- out the germination of the male? He said: 'This is the work of God. He has brought to life the womb of Elizabeth, so she had conceived and will bare a son in her old age who will go before and tell the people of the coming of this King.' After telling me all these things, he disappeared like the melting down of a light. I then went and told Mary what had occurred, and she told me that the same angel, or one like him, had appeared to her and told her the same things. So I married Mary, thinking that if what the angel had told us was true, it would be greatly to our advantage; but I am fearful we are mistaken.

Jesus seems to take no interest in us, nor anything else much. I call him lazy and careless. I don't think he will ever amount to much, much less be a king. If he does, he must do a great deal better than he has been doing. I asked him how long after that interview with the angel before the child was born. He said he did not know, but he thought it was seven or eight months. I asked him where they were at the time. He said in Bethlehem. The Roman commander had given orders for all the Jews to go on a certain day to be enrolled as tax-payers, and he and Mary went to Bethlehem, as the nearest place of enrollment; and while there this baby was born. I asked if anything strange occurred there that night. He said that the people were much excited, but he was so tired that he had gone to sleep, and saw nothing. He said towards day there were several priests came in to see them and the baby, and gave them many presents. And the news got circulated that this child was to be king of the Jews, and it created such an excitement that he took the child and his mother and came to Moab for protection, for fear the Romans would kill the child, to keep it from being a rival to the Romans.

'I discovered that all Joseph's ideas were of a selfish -kind. All he thought of was himself. Mary is altogether a different character, and she is too noble to be the wife of such a man. She seems to be about 40 or 45 years of age, abounds with a cheerful and happy spirit and is full of happy fancies. She is fair to see, rather fleshy, has soft and innocent looking eyes, and seems to he naturally a good woman. I asked her who her parents were, and she said her father's name was Eli, and her mother's name was Anna, her grandmother's name was Pennel, a widow of the tribe of Asher, of great renown. I asked her if Jesus was the son of Joseph. She said he was not. I asked her to relate to me the circumstances of the child's history. She said that one day while she was grinding some meal there appeared a stranger at the door in shining raiment, which showed as bright as the light. She was very much alarmed at his presence, and trembled like a leaf; but all her fears were calmed when he spoke to her; for he said: Mary, thou art loved by the Lord, and he has sent me to tell thee that thou shalt have a child ; that this child shall be great and rule all nations of the earth.' She continued: 'I immediately thought of my engagement to Joseph, and supposed that was the way the child was to come; but he astonished me the more when he told me that cousin Elizabeth had conceived and would bare a son, whose name was to be John ; and my son should be called Jesus. This caused me to remember that Zecharias had seen a vision and disputed with the angel, and for that he was struck with dumbness, so that he could no longer hold the priest's office. I asked the messenger if Joseph knew anything of the matter. He said that he had told Joseph that I was to have a child by order of the Holy Ghost, and that he was to redeem his people from their sins, and was to reign over the whole world; that every man should confess to him and he should rule over all the kings of the earth.'

"I asked her how she knew he was an angel, and she said he told her so, and then she knew he was an angel from the way he came and went. I asked her to describe how he went away from her; and she said that he seemed to melt away like the extinguishing of a light. I asked her if she knew anything of John Baptist. She said he lived in the mountains of Judea the last she knew of him.

I asked her if he and Jesus were acquainted, or did they visit. She said they did not know each other, she did not think. 'I asked her if at the time this angel, as she called him, visited her, she was almah (that is, virgin). She said she was; that she had never showed to man, nor was known by any man. I asked her if she at that time maintained her fourchette; and after making her and Joseph to understand what I meant, they both said she had, and Joseph said this was the way he had of testing her virtue. I asked her if she knew when conception took place. She said she did not. I asked her to tell me if she at any time felt any peculiar sensation about theclitoris, and she said she had not.

I asked her if she was in any pain in bearing, or in delivering this child. She said, 'None of any consequence.' I asked her if he was healthy; to give me a description of his life. She said he was perfectly healthy; that she never heard him complain of any pain or dissatisfaction; his food always agreed with him; that he would eat anything set before him, and if anyone else complained he would often say he thought it good enough, much better than we deserved. She said that Joseph was a little hard to please, but this boy had answered him so often, and his answers were so mild and yet so complete, that he had almost broke him of finding fault. She said he settled all the disputes of the family ; that no odds what was the subject or who it was, one word from him closed all mouths, and what gave him such power was, his words were always accidental, unpretending, and spoken as though they were not intended as a rebuke, but merely as a decision.

I asked her if she had ever seen him angry or out of humour. She said she had seen him apparently vexed and grieved at the disputes and follies of others, but had never seen him angry. I asked her if he had any worldly aspirations after money or wealth, or a great name, or did he delight in fine dress, like the most of youngsters. She said that was one thing that vexed her, he seemed to take no care of his person; he did not care whether he was dressed or not, or whether the family got along well or ill ; it was all alike to him. She said she talked to him about it, and he would look at her a little grieved and say, Woman, (for such he always called me), you don't know who I am.' Indeed, she said he takes so little interest in the things of the world and the great questions of the day, they were beginning to despair of hip ever amounting to much much less be a king, as the angel said he would be; if so, he would have to act very different from what he was acting at that time. I told her that the Jewish Doctors contended that the amorous nature came from the male. I asked her if she had ever seen in the private life of Jesus any signs of such disposition. She had not. I asked her if she saw in him any particular fondness for female society. She said she had not; if anything, rather to the contrary ; that the young bethaul (the word in the Hebrew for young women,) were all very fond of him and were always seeking: hrs society, and yet he seemed to care nothing for them ; and if they appeared too fond of him, he almost treated them with scorn. He will often get up and leave them, and wander away and spend his time in meditation and prayer. He is a perfect ascetic in his life. 'When I see how the people like to be with him, and ask him questions, and seem to take such delight with his answers, — both men and women, — it almost , vexes me. They say there is a young woman in Bethany whom he intends to marry; but unless he changes his course very much he will never be qualified to have a family. But I don't believe the report. He never seems to me to care anything about women when he is in my presence.'

''Thus it seems that Joseph and Mary have both lost all confidence in his becoming anything. They seem to think that the Sanhedrin should do something for him to get him out and let him show himself to the people. I tried to console them by telling them that my understanding of the prophecy was that he had to come to the high priesthood first, and there work in the spiritual dominion of the heart; and when he had brought about a unity of heart and a oneness of aim, it would be easy enough to establish his political claim; and all who would not willingly submit to him, it would be an easy matter with the sword of Joshua or Gideon to bring under his control. It seemed to me that his parents' idea is of a selfish character; that they are caring nothing about the Jewish government, nor the Roman oppression. All they think of is self-exaltation, and to be personally benefited by their son's greatness. But I told them that they were mistaken; that the building up of the kingdom of heaven was not to be done by might nor by power, but by the Spirit of the Lord, and it would not do for us to use carnal weapons, nor to expect carnal pleasures derived there from; that it was not my understanding of the prophecy that this king was to use such weapons either for himself or for the benefit of a party, but for the good of all men ; that his dominion was to be universal, and it was to be of a spiritual character; that he was sent to the lost and not to the found.

His parents told me of an old man who lived on the road to Bethany that had been once a priest, a man of great learning, and well skilled in the laws and prophets, and that Jesus was often there with him reading the law and the prophets together that his name was Massalian, and that I might find Jesus there. But he was not there. Massalian said he was often at Bethany with a young family, and he thought there was some love affair between him and one of the girls. I asked him if he had seen anything like a courtship between them. He said he had not, but inferred from their intimacy and from the fondness on the woman's part, as well as from the laws of nature, that such would be the case. I asked him to give me an outline of the character of Jesus. He said that he was a young man of the finest thought and feeling he ever saw in his life; that he was the most apt in his answers and solutions of difficult problems of any man of his age he had ever seen; that his answers seem to give more universal satisfaction — so much so that the oldest philosopher would not dispute with him, or in any manner join issue with him, or ask the second time. I asked Massalian who taught him to read and interpret the law and the prophets. He said that his mother said that he had always known how to read the law; that his mind seemed to master it from the beginning; and into the laws of nature and the relation of man to his fellow in his teachings or talks, he gives a deeper insight, inspiring mutual love and strengthening the common trust of society. Another plan he has of setting men right with the laws of nature: he turns nature into a great law book of illustrations, showing that every bush was a flame, every rock a fountain of water, every star a pillar of fire, and every cloud the one that leads to God. He makes all nature preach the doctrine of trust, in the divine Fatherhood. He speaks of the lilies as pledges of God's care, and points to the fowls as evidence of his watchfulness over the interests of human affairs. Who can measure the distance between God and the flower of the field? What connection is there between man and the lily? By such illustrations he creates a solicitude in man that seems to awe him into reverence, and he becomes attracted towards heavenly thought, and feels that he is in the presence of one that is superior. In his talk, he brings one to feel he is very near the presence of God. He says how much more your Father? The plane is one, though the intermediate points are immeasurably distant. Thus by beginning with a flower he reasons upward to the absolute, and then descends and teaches lessons of trust in a loving Father.

The lessons of trust in God give a quiet solicitude to the anxious listener, that only awakens an appetite and makes him long for more; and it often seems, when he has brought his hearer to the highest point of anxiety, he suddenly breaks off and leaves his company as though he cared nothing for him. While Jesus in his talk brings all these illustrations to make man feel his nearness to his kindred, man, teaching also their relation to and dependence upon God, although his method is happy, it does not seem to me that it is the most successful; for although he teaches that man and the flower and bird drink from the same fountain and are fed from the same table, he seems at the same time to do everything to excite suspicion and prejudice. We that are watching him to see his divine mission commence, he is continually tantalizing our expectations, as well as mocking our natural reason and desires. When a man separates himself from all other men, both in point of doctrine as well as discipline, he takes a very great risk on his part especially when he confines God to one channel, and that one of his own dictation. A man that assumes these responsible positions must have vast resources from which to draw, or he will sink in the whirlpool which his own impertinence has created. Though Jesus in his teaching or talks, (though his words sound so much like the teaching of Hillel or Shammai that I must call it teaching, though he has no special scholars) from Jesus' teaching we learn that God is a spirit, and God is a Father; and he says these are the only two things that are essential for man to know. Then he illustrates this to the parents, and asks them what would they do for their children. He was telling some mothers a circumstance of a mother starving herself to feed her child, and then applied it to God as our Father; and they commenced shouting, they were so happy; and Jesus got up and left the house in seeming disgust.

"Massalian says he is tempted at times to become impatient with Jesus, as he devotes so much time to details. It seems almost a waste of time, for a man who came to save a world to be lingering over a special case of .disease. He thinks he could hasten Jesus' physical department. Why not speak one word and remove every patient from his sick bed at the same hour? What a triumph this would be. I asked him if Jesus had healed anyone. He said no, not as yet; but if he is to be the king of the Jews, he was to heal all nations, and why not do it at once? If he would, there would be nothing more required to establish his kingship. But I said to him, 'Is it not equally so with God's creative power? See what time and labour it takes to bring forth a grain of corn. Why not have caused the earth to bring forth every month, instead of every year? Christ was talking in defense of his Father. The people must learn to love and obey the Father before they would reverence the Son. Yes, he said, the God that Jesus represented was one that the people might love and venerate; that he was a God of love, and had no bloody designs to execute on even a bad man, provided he would be bad no more.

'It is to be noted that in all Jesus' talk there became manifest references to the future. Many of his statements were like a sealed letter — not to be opened but by time. A grain of mustard was to result in a large tree. All his ideas refer to the future; like the parent helping the child
with his burden of to-day, by telling of the blessings of to-morrow; and by making to-day the seed corn of to-morrow ; keeping the action of today under moral control by making the morrow the day of judgment. He stated further that Jesus was a young man who was the best judge of human nature he had ever seen; that he thought at times he could tell men their thoughts and expose their bad principles j and while he had all these advantages of life, he seemed not to care for them nor to use them abusively. He seems to like all men — one as well as another — so much so that his own parents have become disgusted with him, and have almost cast him off. But Jesus has such a peculiar temperament that he seems not to care, and is as well satisfied with one as another. He said that Jesus seemed fond of Mary and Martha who lived at Bethany, and probably I might find him there.

"Massalian is a man of very deep thought and most profound judgment. He has made the Scriptures his study all his life. He, too, is a good judge of human nature, and he is satisfied that Jesus is the Christ. He said that Jesus seemed to understand the prophecy by intuition. I asked him where Jesus was taught to read the prophecy. He said that his mother said that Jesus could read from the beginning ; that no one had ever taught him to read. He said that he, in making quotations from the prophets, was sometimes mistaken, or his memory failed him; but Jesus could correct him every time without the scroll ; and that sometimes he thought Jesus was certainly mistaken, but never in a single instance was he wrong. I asked him to describe his person to me, so that I might know him if I should meet him. He said, *If ever you meet him you will know him. While he is nothing but a man, there is something about him that distinguishes him from every other man. He is the picture of his mother, only he has not her smooth round face. His hair is a little more golden than hers, though it is as much from sunburn as anything else. He is tall and his shoulder are a little drooped ; his visage is thin and of a swarthy complexion, though this is from exposure; His eyes are large and a soft blue, and rather dull and heavy. The lashes are long, and his eye-brows very large.

His nose is that of a Jew. In fact, he reminds me of an old-fashioned Jew in every sense of the word. He is not a great talker, unless there is something brought up about heaven and divine things, and his tongue moves glibly and his eye lights up with a peculiar brilliancy ; though there is one peculiarity about Jesus: he never argues a question; he never disputes. He will commence and state facts, and they are on such a solid basis that nobody will have the boldness to dispute with him. Though he has such mastership of judgment, he takes no pride in confuting his opponents, but always seems to be sorry for them. I have seen him attacked by the Scribes and doctors of the law, and they would seem like little children learning their lessons under a master. His strongest points are in the spiritual power of the law, and the intentions of the prophets. The young people tried to get him to take a class of them and teach them; but he utterly refused.' This Jew is convinced that he is the Messiah of the world. I went from there to Bethany, but Jesus was not there. They said he and Lazarus were away, they could not tell where. I went and saw Mary and Martha, the sisters of Lazarus, and had a long talk with them. They are very pleasant and nice young maids, and Mary is quite handsome. I teased her about Jesus, but they both denied that Jesus was anything like a lover ; he was only a friend; though this is so common for young maids I did not know whether to believe them or not, until I told them my real business. And when I told them that this was the same person that was born of the virgin in Bethlehem some twenty-six years before, and that his mother had told me all the facts in the case, they seemed deeply interested in the affair. They then told me upon their honor that Jesus never talked or even hinted to either one of them on the subject of marriage. Martha blushed, and said she wished he had. If he was to be king, she would like to be queen. I asked them if they had ever seen him in the company of young virgins. They said they had not. I asked them if they had heard him talk about young girls, or if he sought their society more than that of men; and they both declared they had not; and they were very much surprised that he did not.

I asked them what he talked of when in their company; and they said, he was not much in their company; that he and their brother would go upon the house-top and stay there half the night, and some nights all night, talking and' arguing points of interest to them both. Mary said she had often gone near, so she could listen to them; for she loved to hear him talk, he was so mild and unpretending, and then was so intelligent that he was different from any and all other young men she had ever seen. I asked them what their brother’s opinion of him was. They said he thought there never was such a man on earth. He thought him to be one of God's prophets. He said when they were out in the mountains, as they are most all the time, Jesus can tell him all about the flowers, trees, and rocks, can tell him everything in the world, and that none of the wild animals are afraid of him. He says often the stag and the wolf will come and stand for Jesus to stroke their mane, and seem almost loth to go away from him. He says that no poisonous serpent will offer to hiss at him. Brother thinks he is perfectly safe if Jesus is with him. I asked them if he had ever told their brother anything about himself. They said if he had their brother had not told them.

Now, Masters of Israel, after having made this investigation of this matter; after tracing Jesus from his conception to the present time; after getting all the information that is to be had on this important subject, and getting it from the parties that are more likely to tell the truth, from the fact they are disinterested parties; and then taking a prophetical as well as a historical view of the subject, I have come to the conclusion that this is the Christ that we are looking for. And as a reason for my conclusion, I will call your attention to the following facts: First, to the prophecy. Isaiah, section 7: 'And he said, Hear now, saith the Lord. Oh, house of David, is it a small thing for you? Therefore the Lord himself shall give you a sign: behold, a virgin shall conceive and bear a son, and shall call his name God with men. Butter and honey shall he eat, that he may know to refuse the evil and choose the good; for before the child shall know to refuse the evil and choose the good, the land that God abhorrentshall be forsaken of her king.' Section 8: Bind the testimony; seal the law among his disciples; the Lord will hide his face from the house of Jacob, and we will look for him.' Here is a literal fulfillment of this word of the Most High God, so clear and plain that none may mistake. Jeremiah, 31st section : Turn, oh virgin, to thy people, for the hand of the Lord is upon thee ; for the Lord shall create a new thing in the earth: a woman shall compass a man.' Here again is set forth the same things that Isaiah speaks of, and the same things that I have learned from Mary, Micah, section 5: 'Thou, Bethlehem Ephratah, thou at little among the thousands of Judah ; out of thee shall come forth unto me him that shall rule my people. He is from everlasting; and I will give them up until the time she travaileth to bring forth my first born, that he may rule all people.' Here we have the city, the virgin, his manner of life, the hunting him by the Sanhedrin. All these things are under our eyes as full and complete as I now could write them, who have all this testimony given in this letter. How can we as a people dispute these things? In the 49th section of Genesis, making reference to the history that is now upon us the writer says: A captive shall not depart from Judah, nor a law- maker from him, until Shiloh come, and gather his people between his feet, and keep them forever.'




CHAPTER VI.

CAIAPHAS' REPORT OF THE SANHEDRIN, GIVING HIS REASON FOR THE EXECUTION OF JESUS OF NAZARETH

Records of the Jerusalem Sanhedrin by EleazarHyran, B. 22. Taken in Constantinople  October 16, 1883.

Caiaphas, priest of the Most High God, to the masters of Israel, greeting:
In obedience to your call for a reason of my action in the case of Jesus of Nazareth, and in defense of my conduct, I beg leave to submit the following for your consideration: I would assure you that it was not on account of personal malice, envy or hate, that existed in my own nature, nor for the want of a willingness upon my part to con- form to the Jewish law in its strictest sense. I had but very little personal knowledge of the Nazarene. The most I knew of this man, was from outside sources. Nor was it because he claimed to be king of the Jews, nor because he said he was the Son of God ; (I would that he were,) nor because he prophesied or ignored the holy temple. No, nor all of these combined.

There is a cause, and a more weighty matter, back of all these things that controlled my action in the matter. Therefore, I hope you will investigate the reasons that I may give strictly on legal principles. In order that you may be able to see, and weigh the question fully, and remember the responsibility that rests upon me according to the laws of our nation, I will ask you to go back with me to the chronicles of our history as a commonwealth. First, our faith is pledged to one living and true God, this God being indescribable, unchangeable and incomprehensible, and of course unnameable. But yet in our daily communications with, and our applications to him, he has been pleased to give us his name, or his several names, according to his relations to us, and they are found nowhere, only in the ark of his holy temple there where he presents to us his strength and power. He calls himself, Eloi; which means Almighty In Strength ; that he can do what he will without effort ; that he does the greatest thing as easy as he does the least. This makes him different from all beings. In this Holy Arkhe records himself Elaah — existence without beginning, and no contingency as to his end.

Again, he writes himself Hhelejon — unchangeable ; that is, nothing but his own will can change him. Again, he records his name, Jah — knowledge that comprehends without being comprehended. Again, he is written Adonai — full and free, and freely full. Combining the several names, we have Jehovah the Hebrew God. A man never can go wrong while he can pronounce this name in its comprehensive sense. This is where the Zealots, the Sadducees and Essences had their origin, and it is the want of being able to pronounce this name in its comprehensive sense that causes so much dissension among us Jews. Jesus could pronounce this name, but he stole it out of the temple, as I am credibly informed.

But the object of calling your attention to pronouncing this name, with all its bearings, may be seen if we turn to the third Book, Leviticus, section ten, wherein is the special order made by our God to Moses, that we should offer the bullock, the ram, the flour and oil, and the people should fast seven days, and this should be Kaphar or atonement, for the sins of all the people. Now, unless Moses was deceived, he has deceived us, or Jesus of Nazareth is a false teacher ; for all he teaches is metanoeite,metanoeite as though a man's being sorry for a crime would make restitution to the offended party. A man might repent ever so much, but what good would that do toward healing the man he had injured? None in the least. This mode of making atonement was ordained of God and revealed to Moses ;but if man has nothing to do but to repent, the disease carries its own remedy with it. So a man can sin as often as he may wish to. Look at the first book, section three: And God said to Abraham, by his own mouth, that each and all that were circumcised by the cutting of the prepus should be saved.'' This should be the seal of the covenant. Now if this is not true, God must go against his own contract, violate his own promises, as well as deceive the faith and cheat the obedience of his own children. This is all so if Jesus' teaching be true, for he sets table (baptism) as the seal of God. I refer you to section ten, division first, where God said to Moses, that he had changed the laws, converted the elements for the protection of his people, and with his own arm had delivered them out of a strong compact ; and that they might remember, and that the generation to be born might remember and never forget to trust in him when in danger, he said that 'once every year we should roast a kid or lamb, and eat it with unleavened bread, and this should be the sign that we would trust in him in all times of danger. Now Jesus teaches that common bread and wine are to be used instead thereof — a thing unheard of. And not only so, something that is altogether repugnant to God, and something that fosters drunkenness, and is well qualified to excite men's passions. And oh, ye Masters of Israel, but think once. Jesus calls himself the Son of God ; claims to have been born of almah (the Hebrew word for virgin) ; that he and his Father are one — they are equal. These things will establish the following conclusions : If he is right, his Father is false. If they were one, then their teaching should be one ; and if his teachings are true, God's must be wrong, or there are not those perfections in him that we learn in pronouncing his holy name. By tolerating the teachings of Jesus, we say to the Romans that all of our former teachings are false; that the Hebrew's God is not to be trusted ; that he is weak, wanting in forethought ; that he is vac- collating, and not to be trusted, much less to be honoured and obeyed. Thus the world will lose confidence in our God, and confidence in us as a religious people. This is the impregnation of the whole atmosphere with moral pollution. It does not only cut off, but blocks the way of all Jews from heaven ; and not only this, it excludes our hope in the salvation of our forefathers, who have obeyed God in his ordinances, believed in his promises, and shouted in the triumphs of a holy life for fourteen hundred years. He entirely ignores God's holy temple — the house God had built by our fathers under his own supervision, where he promised to dwell with his children, to hear their prayers, and to be pleased with their sacrifices. This temple is the bond of the Jews. Here all men can come and be blessed. It is the earthly home of the souls of men — the place where men may hide from the storms of sin and persecution. This temple is where the foolish can learn wisdom, the place where the naked soul can be clothed, and where the hungry may be fed.

 This is the grandest gift of our Father. Jesus perfectly ignores this temple ; says that the priests have made it a den of thieves; and sets up a sneer, and even scoffs at its sacred ordinances, and with a sort of selfish triumph says it shall be destroyed ; and from his manner of saying it, I have no doubt he would be glad how quick. But what would be the condition of our people if this temple was removed? Where would be the use of priesthood if the temple were absolved? Where would we find an answer by Urim and Thummim? How would the soul of man be purified, if the holy Bathkohjthe Euroch of God, should depart? There in that sacred temple of God he has been burning to the consuming of sin and the purifying of the heart since our return from bondage in Babylon. My argument is, if this temple is destroyed, or even forsaken by the Jews, we as a nation are finally ruined. We might as well put our necks under the feet of idolatry and give up all hope. One more subject I place before my Masters of Israel. Is it compatible with our religion, or is it consistent with philosophy, or admitted in his holy Word, that there can be more gods than one? When we pronounce EleLaahShaddaiHhelyon' Adonai (which is Jahvah) , there can be but one living God. By reference to section six, No, 4, he says by mouth of Moses, when he was all aglow with the glory of God— and remember he speaks either by mouth or quill ; it is he that speaks, and not man — he says, '' The Lord your God is one God ; there can be but one. I am and have been with you; I brought you up ; I delivered you out of a strong compact ; I delivered you out of their hand, and kept you dry, while your enemies were drowned in the sea. I will not forsake you. I promised your Father I would not. But if you forsake me, then desolation will come upon you, and have you in swift destruction.'' In section five, three and four, of David's Song of Joy: *'I am God alone. If I turn to the right or to the left, if I go down into the depths of the' sea, or into the center of the earth, or over the heavens, I should find no companion." In section third he says,  I am God alone, and alone I am God; beside me there is no help for man nor angels.' Then in section 13, this command has been given :  Thou shalt pay to the Lord thy God once a year a half shekel of silver, that thou and thy children, and all the strangers that are in thy gate, may know that there is no God beside me, on whom they may call in time of danger." Now, having all the commands and teachings from the very lips of God himself before my eyes, and being held responsible for the soundness of our doctrine and the proper inculcation of the same among the people of the Jews, what was I to do? Could I stand as the priest of the Most High God, and see your blessed religion perverted by an imposter?

Could I stand and see the holy temple of our God deserted and forsaken? Could I stand and see all the holy ordinances, which had been appointed by our God for securing salvation to Israel, perverted by an imposter? All the blessed doctrines that were appointed for the government and the instruction of the priesthood, thence to be imparted to the youth of our land, set aside, and that by one that could show no authority, only the authority of John Baptist, who could give no authority only the one who sent him to baptize, and he could not tell who he was, nor from whence he came. Hence you can see the responsible position that I as the high priest of God and of the Jewish Church occupied. According to our laws I was made responsible, and stood between my God and my people, to protect them in doctrine and government. I refer you to the capitulation made by the Sanhedrin and Augustus Caesar, in the holy Tosephta of the talmuds. We submitted to taxation by the Romans, and the Romans are to protect our holy religion from foreign foes, in order that the holy temple or any of its sacred ordinances should never be molested, nor the holy city, Jerusalem, be polluted by Roman idolatry.

Now the insinuating plan taken by Jesus was Well qualified to deceive the common people. It had already led many to forsake the temple, and hold her ordinances in derision, as well as to neglect the teachings of the priest or to pay tithes for their supplies. He had already inculcated into the Jewish mind his pernicious ways of being saved to that extent' that the Jewish cause was almost gone. There are two reasons for this: First, the people to whom he preached were an ignorant set, and knew but very little about doctrine of any kind. They are a restless sort of men, who are always finding fault and wanting something new, and never associate with the more enlightened part of the community in order to learn. Another reason of his having many followers is, his doctrines are congenial to unsanctified flesh. They are so suited to human nature that they require no sacrifices ; they need not go to the temple to worship God ; they need not fast, and they can pray when and where they please ; they need pay no tithes to keep up the temple or the priesthood, but every man can be his own priest, and worship God as he chooses. All this is so compatible with human nature that, although he has not been preaching over three years, he has more followers to-day than Abraham has, and they have become perfectly hostile towards the Jews that are faithful to their God; and if it had not been for the Roman soldiers, on the day of execution we would have had one of the bloodiest insurrections ever known to the Jewish commonwealth. I am told that there was never seen such a concourse of people assembled at Jerusalem as at the cross. One of my guards informs me that there were several hundred thousand, and, although there were two others crucified at the same time, Jesus was the great center of attraction. They would call out,

'Who is this Jesus of Nazareth? What is his crime?" Some of his friends would cry out, ''Nothing; he is being executed because he was a friend to the poor. Take him down 1 Take him down," they would cry out, and the soldiers would have to use their spears to keep them back. But when he yielded up the ghost he proved to all that he was hypostatical (that is a human body) , and the lodi curios had came from the iclandic covenant, and his trinitatisunitas was all a sham, for how could this unpronounced name suffer or be captured by men, or die, unless he is the one that is to die for the many? And if so, I was only accomplishing Gq's holy purposes, which exonerates me from guilt. But it seems to me a necessity that he should be removed. That this may be evident to your minds, I ask you to contrast our present condition with the past. Jesus of Nazareth spent two years in Egypt under the instruction of Rabbi Joshua, and learned the art of thaumaturgy to perfection, as has never been taught in any of the schools of necromancy among the heathen. If the healing miracles of Jesus are true, as they must be (for they are so acknowledged by his foes as well as his friends), he must have learned it from Horus and Serapis, as practiced by those heathen priests. He came back to Palestine as physician, and was by nature an enthusiast as well as a Hebrew patriarch, and when John's preaching excited idealistic minds, Jesus also went to that teacher, and was inspired by him to inculcate and promulgate his doctrines. Notwithstanding his youth and inexperience, Jesus started out as a public orator and teacher with the doctrines of John, and in that capacity referred exclusively to his authority, as every public teacher in these days has to be ordained by some acknowledged authority. As long as John was at large, Jesus in the capacity of an itinerant teacher and physician roused the people of Galilee to metanoia (repentance of sin), to bring about a restoration of the kingdom of heaven.

 He met with the same opposition that John did from those who would not admit that they were more sinful than their progenitors were, or that asceticism was the proper means for the restoration of the kingdom of heaven. But he met with the same success among the lower classes, such as foreign harlots, sodomites, publicans and other Roman agents, but the intelligent portion remained cold and unmoved by his enthusiasm. The cures which he performed appeared miraculous to his followers, but most ridiculous to the intelligent Jews, and those men of sober and reflective minds. Jesus embraced the humanitarian doctrine of the Hillelites, presenting conspicuously the cosmopolitan spirit of Judaism, and he did it almost in the words of Hillet, who had taught it before. Their faith and doctrine being alike, it was not hard for him to create excitement, or to find plenty of followers. In addition to all this, he taught a system of low morals, and so void of all ritualistic ideas that it was easy for him to get any amount of followers. He taught the people that there was but one living and true God, but he taught them that he was that God, and that his Father was emerged into himself, and could not manifest himself only through him, which theory would confute itself if they would only stop to reflect, for as he was hypostatical or corporeal, his assistance was cut off from all that was not immediately in his presence, which is altogether incompatible with the faith of the Jews. Eight in the blaze of this doctrine he would teach that there was a special providence, as well as a general providence, as if there could be a general providence without a God that could be present in all places at all times, as we learn in pronouncing his name. He teaches that the dead will rise and live again in a future state of happiness or misery according as they have lived here. Therefore he teaches future rewards and punishments, but he being present how can he reward in the future? He teaches the revelation and the prophets, but contradicts all they teach. He teaches the election of Israel by the Almighty, but ignores all the doctrines of Israel. He teaches the eternity of God's laws, and promises in the super-importance of the humanitarian over the ritual laws and doctrines, but I don't think he wished to abolish the latter, or even the traditional laws, but merely to supersede them by a higher life. The natural result of all this was that he dis-regarded the laws of Levitical cleanness, which were so important to the Shammaites and Essences, and so important to the Hillelites. This is the point where division commenced, and the breach grew wider and wider until an insurrection must have been the result. He so far cut himself loose from the Jews that he ate with unclean sinners, publicans and lepers, and permitted harlots to touch him, while his disciples went so far as to eat their meals, without washing themselves. Furthermore, he looked upon the whole of the Levitical institutions, temple, sacrifices, and priesthood included, as necessary no longer, and not worth the life of the animal. This was certainly the opinion of the Hillelites. Jesus, it seems, found in this Hillelite school a party furnished to hand, ready to take up with his heresy (and a large party they are, almost sufficient to divide the whole Jewish commonwealth). They teach the repentance of sin, the practice of benevolence and charity, the education of the young, and good-will towards mankind, as possessing much more moral worth than all the Levitical cleanness, or compliance with the whole moral law given to us by our God to govern us. His preaching was of the parabolical style. He would rely on a text of scripture, for he seems to hold the scriptures in high veneration, so his preaching was on the midrcbsh style of the scribes a maxim expressed in the style of Solon or of Sirach'sson. His great object was to come as near the Jewish theology as possible so as to destroy the Jews entirely, and establish his own. Hence he resorted to the allegorical method of the Egyptian Hebrews, uttering many good and wise sayings, which were not new to the learned, but which were taken from the common wisdom of the country, which was known by all who were acquainted with the literature of the Rabbis. But they were new to his class of hearers who were not accustomed to listen to the wise. He had no education, comparatively speaking. He was. full of nervous excitement, all of which went to inspire his hearers with enthusiasm. He took but little care of his health or person ; cared not for his own relatives. He travelled mostly on foot in the company of his disciples and some suspicious women, and lived on the charity of his friends. He seemed to take no notice of the political affairs of his country ; would as Soon be governed by one nation as another. In fact, it seemed if he had any preference, it was for the Romans. It seems that he became so infatuated that he really thought he was head of the kingdom of heaven. This manner of preaching, along with his presumption, aroused his enemies to a powerful pitch, and it was all I could do to keep the zealots from mobbing him in the temple. They had no confidence in a doctrine that set the Jewish laws at naught, and mocked the priesthood of God, and they with the Sadducees and Scribes were not willing to submit to a man who acknowledged no authority higher than himself, and was seemingly endeavouring to overturn everything that they held more sacred and dearer than life. Jesus' mode and manner was well qualified to deceive the unsuspecting.

Let us have all things common," said he, ' and he that would be greatest among you will prove his greatness by rendering the greatest service to all, and if any of the higher powers compel thee to go a mile, let him that is compelled go ten miles." This caused him to be more at- tacked in the policy than in his doctrine. The great question with us Jews was, here are the Romans upon us; how can we get rid of them? Jesus' idea was to let the Romans alone ; it matters not who rules and governs the nations ; if they abuse you, love them in return, and they can't be your enemies long; no man can continue to abuse another, who returns injuries with love. Keep from them ; pray in secret for the return of the kingdom of heaven and God's grace, and this will soon make all things right. '' Pay your taxes," he would say to them ; *Mt is only Caesar's money you pay, which is unlawful for you to have  unlawful on account of its idolatrous effigies. Again, he would say to his hearers, *' You can't conquer the Romans ; better convert them, and they are your enemies no longer. They already have your temple in possession ; their yoke is getting heavier every day, and the more you fight against them the more they will abuse you ; therefore, your only chance is to love them, and try to make your yoke easy, and your burden light by having them your friends." Indeed, the conduct of Jesus was so strange and incompatible with the interest of the Jews as a nation, it seemed to me that he was a subject employed by the Romans to keep the Jews submissive and obedient to all their tyranny and abuse. This policy was most powerfully attacked by the officiating priest, by the Shammaitesand Zealots, and in fact, the whole Jewish nation was becoming aroused to a war-heat. The reprimands of Jesus were so severe against the rich and highly educated that they had turned against him, and brought all the power they had, both of their wealth and talent, so that I saw that a bloody insurrection was brewing fast. The public mind of the Jews was becoming more and more divided and corrupt ; the doctrine of heresy was being diffused all over the land ; the temple was forsaken, the holy sacraments neglected, the people were dividing into sects, and these breaches were like a rent in a garment — tearing wider apart continually. As it seemed to me, the whole of the Jewish theocracy was about to be blown away as a bubble on a breaker. As the Jews became more and more divided and confused, this increased the tyranny of the Romans. All they wanted was an excuse to slaughter, massacre the Jews, and confiscate their property. At this time both the doctrine and religion of the Jews were spreading rapidly all over Rome, which gave them great alarm. Sejane undertook to have an ordinance passed in the Senate, abolishing the Jewish religion from Rome; and when he found it would produce an insurrection, they banished all the Jews from Rome, and back they came to Judea with all their idolatry and heresy, with many other principles of corruption from the Romans, which fitted them to join any party for profit. Up to this time the Roman kings had showed great kindness to the Jews. There never was a better man than Hyran. The Jews enjoyed great peace during his administration. But a Tiberias has turned against us; Pilate has removed the army from Caesarea to Jerusalem. I say, no nation with any self-respect, or one that had any energy left, would nor could stand it without a struggle. Now the preaching of John Baptist and Jesus of Nazareth had brought all these things upon us. When Herod Antipas captured John, it gave a quiet to things in Galilee, so that they had peace until Jesus started it up afresh, I had issued orders to Jesus to desist from preaching, unless he taught as the Jews taught. He sent me the impertinent word that his doctrine was not of this world, but had reference to the world to come; when he was all the time doing all he could to destroy the peace and harmony of this world, Now, according to our law in the Saphra, by Jose, B. Talmud, it devolves on me to see that the people have sound doctrine taught them. Hence it is my duty to examine all the midrashim or sermons, of all the preaching priests, and, if anytaught the people wrong, to cause him to desist; or, if his conduct was not in correspondence with his profession, to cause him to desist ; or, if any disregard the holy laws of ablution, or in any way defiled himself, or if he should be guilty of any misconduct in any way, either in manner of life or doctrine, to adjudge such an one, and sentence the value of his crime upon him. This I did upon Jesus of Nazareth, to save the Church from heresy, and to save the cause of the Jewish commonwealth from final ruin. But understand that I did not act rashly nor illegally, as I am accused. I only passed sentence under the protest and order of the whole court belonging to the high priest, containing twelve members, or elders, and priests. Thus you will see it was not an act of my voluntary power, but was legal, as was my place to do according to law. After I examined Jesus on the various charges, he said in the presence of all the court that each and all of them were true. I then reasoned with him, and asked him if the court of the high priest would forgive him of these charges would he desist from these things in all time to come. He answered most emphatically and positively he would not. Under these circumstances, I was compelled, according to our law, to sentence him to die ; for if he continued to promulgate his pernicious heresies the Jews, as a nation, must die with their religion. And, as you find in the Toseppta that the nation has always the right of self-preservation, and as we had conceded the right to the Romans of executing our criminal laws, it became my painful duty to send him to Pontius Pilate, with the following charges :

"Caiaphas, high priest of the Most High God, to Pontius Pilate, governor of the Roman province: Jesus of Nazareth is thus charged by the high court of the Jews :
"First, with teaching the doctrine that there are more gods than one, which is contrary to the teaching of the Jewish law, and he most positively refuses to desist in the presence of this court. "Second, he teaches that he is a God, all of which is contrary to the Jewish law, and he is visible and comprehensible; and, after being required to desist by this court, most positively affirms that he is the Son of God. ''Thirdly he teaches and affirms that the Bath hole (Holy Spirit) can't come until he goes away, which is contrary to the teaching of the Jews; because it was he that brooded over the waters, and has been the spiritual light of the world ever since ; from all of which he refuses to desist.

''He teaches baptism as the seal of God, instead of circumcision, which was established by the decrees of God with Abraham as a seal of the Jews ; and, when abjured to desist by the order of this court, affirmed he would not. "He teaches asceticism as the means of salvation, contrary to the Jewish custom, and affirmed in the presence of this court he would not desist. "He teaches the Levitical ablution as of no service, while we hold that the outward washing is the sign of inward purity ; and when abjured to desist, he emphatically refused. "He has abrogated the ordinance given by God to Moses of the pascal supper, wherein we should roast a lamb and eat it with [unleavened bread ; but Jesus has introduced a different thing  altogether different without any authority. He has inaugurated common bread and wine, which is not only forbidden, but is well qualified to excite men's passions and make them forget God rather than to remember and trust him ; this feast having been introduced that we should remember to trust him in the hours of trouble. He has established this in the place of it ; and the wine is well qualified to make us forget him. When asked why he did this, all he would say, was: Hitherto I work, and my Father works.' ''He has abrogated the priesthood, and set the temple at naught, which is the very life's blood of the Jewish faith. "Were it not, that God our Father has given us these holy ordinances we would not be so tenacious for them. But when we know they are the pillars upon which the Jewish theocracy is built, and that we can't live without them ; and when Jesus of Nazareth has been abjured time and again to stop teaching these ways of death, he has as often declared he would not ; therefore, it devolves on me as the proper and the only officer to pronounce sentence upon him."

These charges were written by my scribe, and sent with the officers to Pilate for his consent. Of course I did not expect him to execute him as he did, but it seemed that the mob was so great that Pilate never received them. Of course I expected Pilate to send Jesus back to me, so I could send him to you for your approval ; and if so, then I would proceed to try him with Urim and Thummim, with the regularlacktees on guard, as our law requires ; but it seemed that Pilate thirsted for his blood. Like all guilty tyrants, he was afraid of his own shadow, and wished to destroy everything that stood in his way of power. With these reasons for my actions, I submit
the case which I am sure will be considered favourable by my masters of Israel.